Parts of Drilling Machine and Their Functions,Types,Operation

Hello friends, today we will explore the components of a drilling machine and their respective functions. Additionally, we’ll delve into the types and operations of drilling machines. So, let’s delve into a comprehensive overview of the drilling machine without further delay.

What is Drilling Machine?

It is the most straightforward and precise machine employed in production shops. The workpiece is secured in a stationary position, clamped in place, while the drill bits rotate to create a hole. This machine is explicitly designed for drilling and comparable operations. Drill bits are commonly referred to as drills. Production shops utilize various machines such as drilling machines, milling machines, slotting machines, and planer machines to perform a range of operations.

Parts of Drilling Machine and Their Functions

The drilling machine comprises the following components, each serving a specific function:

  • Drill Chuck
  • Head
  • Table
  • Column
  • Spindle
  • Drill Base
  • Sleeve
  • Socket
  • Drill Drift
  • Electric Motor
  • Hand Wheel
See in the figure various parts of drilling machine which are described below in detail.
Parts of Drilling Machine
Parts of Drilling Machine


Drill Chuck

The drill chuck is a crucial component in the drilling machine, serving as a pivotal work-holding device. It primarily holds the straight-shank cutting tools used in drilling operations. Drill chucks are available in three-jaw or four-jaw configurations, with simultaneous movement during the rotation of the outer sleeve in a drilling machine.

Read also: Types of Cutting Tool Materials and Their Properties

Inside the jaws of the chuck, teeth are incorporated to securely grip the drill. The chuck features a ring nut that, upon rotation, opens and closes the jaws simultaneously. To tighten the chuck’s jaws, keys are utilized. Drill chucks are typically constructed from alloy steel for durability and effective performance.


The upper section of the drilling machine is referred to as the head, housing a spindle capable of vertical movement, both upward and downward.


The table serves the purpose of securing the workpiece or job and can be adjusted by moving it in an upward or downward direction.


The column provides support to the table, head, and various attached mechanisms. It is typically constructed from cast iron or steel due to its high-strength properties and capacity for hardening.


It is designed to secure and rotate the tool bits for drilling, attaching to the head of the drilling machine. The spindle is typically crafted from high-carbon chromium steel or steel alloys.

Drill Base

It plays a pivotal role in the drilling machine as it bears the entire weight of the equipment.

The drilling machine’s base is constructed from either cast iron or steel material.

The rigidity of the drill base is attributed to its cast iron composition.


The sleeve is employed in a drilling machine to facilitate the feeding of cutting tools into a workpiece.

Additionally, it serves to secure taper shank drills, specifically those with a taper size matching that of the spindle.

These sleeves are commonly referred to as quick assembly components.


When the taper shank diameter of a drill exceeds the hole size of the machine’s spindle, a specific sleeve, known as a socket, is utilized on the drill.

Drill Drift

A drill drift is a broad steel strip that is tapered along its width, featuring a taper angle ranging from 8° to 19°.

It is employed for extracting taper shank drills from the equipment. Additionally, the drill drift is utilized to disengage the drill chuck, sleeve, and socket that are inserted into the machine’s spindle.

Electric Motor

The electric motor is utilized to provide power to the drill machine.

Hand Wheel

The handwheel holds significant importance in the drilling machine as it controls the feed for a job or workpiece.

Rotating the handwheel causes the spindle to move in the upward and downward directions.

Methods to Holding the Drill

There are four tricks to hold the drill with the machine as follows:

  • Holding direct in a spindle
  • Using a sleeve
  • Using the socket
  • Using the drill chucks or key

These devices are employed to secure various types of drills in a drilling machine.

Certain holding devices are also utilized to secure the workpiece or job based on their specific shapes and sizes. These include:

  • Use of step block
  • Use of drill vice
  • Use of V-block
  • Use of jig and fixture
  • Use of T-bolt

Types of Drilling Machine

The various types of drilling machines are as follows:

  • Portable Drilling Machine
  • Sensitive Drilling Machine
  • Vertical Drilling Machine
  • Automatic Drilling Machine
  • Pneumatic Drilling Machine 
  • Gang Drilling Machine
  • Radial Drilling Machine
  • Multiple Spindle Drilling Machine
  • Deep Hole Drilling Machine

Portable Drilling Machine

The portable drilling machine is employed for drilling small-diameter holes in a workpiece or job.

It is easily movable, allowing for transportation between different locations.

Read also: Manufacturing Process of Steel: 6 Methods of Making Steel

These machines operate at high rotational speeds, enabling the drilling of holes with diameters up to 12 mm.

This machine has two types which are as follows:

  • Hand Drilling Machine
  • Breast Drilling Machine

Sensitive Drilling Machine

It is utilized to achieve precision in hole drilling within a workpiece, particularly in light-duty applications.

This type of machine is capable of drilling holes with a diameter exceeding 20 mm.

Two orientations are available for this machine: bench style and floor style.

Vertical Drilling Machine

It is employed for creating larger-sized holes in comparison to a hand drill machine. This type of machine is utilized in situations where access to electricity is not feasible, such as in railway line work, fabrication, pillar construction, etc.

Automatic Drilling Machine

It is employed for creating larger-sized holes in comparison to a hand drill machine. This type of machine is utilized in situations where access to electricity is not feasible, such as in railway line work, fabrication, pillar construction, etc.

There are two types of automatic drilling machines, which are as follows:

  • Light duty
  • Heavy duty

Pneumatic Drilling Machine

This machine is powered by air pressure and is employed for ship maintenance, particularly in situations where electrical machines are not suitable due to the presence of water.

Gang Drilling Machine

The gang drilling machine utilizes multiple single-spindle drilling machine columns arranged side by side on a shared base. Additionally, a common worktable is employed in the gang drilling machine.

Radial Drilling Machine

A radial drilling machine is employed for heavy workpieces and is suitable for creating medium to large-sized holes.

In a radial drilling machine, a robust round vertical column supports a horizontal arm, which in turn supports the drill head.

Multiple Spindle Drilling Machine

Multiple spindle drilling machines are predominantly used in industries or factories for the mass production of work.

These machines enable the simultaneous drilling of numerous holes in a job or workpiece, producing identical patterns and hole sizes across multiple workpieces.

Deep Hole Drilling Machine

A deep hole drilling machine utilizes straight flutes through which coolant fluid is injected, reaching the cutting face through the hollow body of the drill. These machines are characterized by a high depth-to-diameter ratio, typically around 300:1.

They find extensive applications in mold making, die making, and the manufacturing of woodwind musical instruments.

Now, let’s delve into the operations of a drilling machine.

Operation of Drilling Machine

Certainly, a drilling machine is versatile and performs various operations for different purposes. Some of the common drilling operations include:

  1. Hole Making: The primary function is to create holes in a workpiece of varying depths and diameters.
  2. Reaming: It involves finishing and sizing existing holes to precise dimensions.
  3. Tapping: Adding threads to an existing hole to accommodate screws, bolts, or other fasteners.
  4. Counterboring: Enlarging the opening at the end of a hole to allow for the insertion of a bolt head or similar fastener.
  5. Countersinking: Creating a conical recess to accommodate a flat-head screw or bolt.
  6. Boring: Enlarging existing holes to achieve precise diameters.
  7. Spot Facing: Creating a flat surface around a hole.

These operations are not exclusive to drilling machines; they can also be performed on a lathe machine, highlighting the versatility of machining processes.


The process you’re describing is known as “drilling.” In drilling, a hole is created in a solid workpiece using a rotating drill. This operation is common in machining and is fundamental for various manufacturing processes and applications.


In the reaming process, the initial hole size is precisely enlarged with accuracy.

A multi-tooth cutting tool is employed in reaming.

A level of accuracy of +/- 0.005 mm can be achieved in the reaming process.


Boring is an operation performed on a drilling machine to enlarge the hole in a workpiece or job.

It follows the drilling process and involves the use of a single-point cutting tool.

Boring operations are instrumental in producing precise and finished workpieces.

Counter Boring

Counterboring is an operation carried out on a drilling machine to enlarge a bore. It is consistently performed after the drilling process.

A multipoint cutting tool is utilized in this operation, aimed at creating a cylindrical hole according to specific requirements.

Counter Sinking

Countersinking is executed when the need arises to create a conical edge at a specific angle.

This operation is conducted subsequent to drilling.

Common cone angles employed in countersinking include 60°, 82°, 90°, 100°, 110°, and 120°.

Spot Facing

The process of creating holes on the bore face or upper face of a hole in a casted job to achieve flat surfaces is referred to as spot facing.


This process involves the formation of internal threads and can be performed manually or using a machine. The initial step is drilling to create the minor diameter of the thread, followed by the tapping process.


In this process, initially, two workpieces are rubbed together, a step known as lapping. Following the precise alignment of both jobs, drilling is then performed.


The process of creating a large-diameter hole or cutting a round job using a drill machine is termed trepanning. In this method, two bits are mounted in a holder, centered at an equal distance, with a hole-size pilot fitted in the middle.

That’s great! If you have any more questions or if there’s anything else you’d like to discuss or clarify, feel free to ask. I’m here to help!

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