Surface Grinding Machine Parts and Function,Types,Uses

Hello, friends. Today, we will delve into the parts and functions of a surface grinding machine.

In addition to exploring the components and functions of surface grinding machines, we will also delve into various types of surface grinding machines, methods employed in surface grinding, and more.

Surface grinding machines encompass various types, including cylindrical grinding machines, centerless grinding machines, tool and cutter grinding machines, among others.

Read also: Types of Cutting Tool Materials and Their Properties

So, without further ado, let’s dive into the details of surface grinding machine parts, functions, types, methods, and more.

What is Surface Grinding Machine

Surface grinding is a precision machining process used to produce a smooth, flat surface on a workpiece by removing material through an abrasive wheel. The primary goal of surface grinding is to achieve a parallel or flat surface, and it is often used to improve the finish of metallic or non-metallic surfaces. Surface grinding machines utilize a rotating grinding wheel to remove material from the workpiece, creating a flat and smooth surface.

Read also: Manufacturing Process of Steel: 6 Methods of Making Steel

The machine typically consists of a wheel composed of abrasive particles, a workholding device to secure the workpiece in place, and a reciprocating or rotary table to move the workpiece beneath the grinding wheel. This process is widely used in various industries for finishing and precision grinding applications.

Uses of Surface Grinding Machine

It is used to perform the following operations:

  1. Grinding flat surfaces
  2. Grinding vertical surfaces
  3. Grinding slots
  4. Grinding angular surfaces
  5. Grinding radius  
  6. Cutting off

Surface Grinding Machine Parts and Functions

There are the following basic parts of surface grinding machines are used:

  • Base
  • Vertical Column
  •  Saddle
  • Table
  • Wheel Head
  • Grinding Wheel
  • Wheel Guard
  • Coolant
  • Hand Traversing Wheel
  • Vertical Feed Hand Wheel
  • Cross Side Hand Wheel
Show in figure surface grinding machine parts and their functions described below.
Parts of Surface Grinding Machine
Parts of Surface Grinding Machine


The base is a critical component of the surface grinding machine, providing essential support for the entire machine structure.

It is generally made of cast iron.

Vertical Column

A vertical column is the part of the surface grinding machine where the wheel head is mounted. 

It also has a driving mechanism through which columns can be raised or lowered.


It is the frame that keeps the table raised. 

It is used to provide cross feed to the workpiece. 

A saddle can be moved by a cross feed hand wheel.


It is fitted on the saddle which has ‘T’ slots for clamping purposes. 

A table can be moved by hand traversing the wheel.

Wheel Head

It is mounted on a column that can be raised or lowered by rotating the hand wheel to allow workpieces of different heights and the wheel can be set for the depth of cuts.

Grinding Wheel

It is the most important part of the surface grinding machine which performs different operations.

Most often the following grinding wheels are used:

(a) Straight

(b) Double raised

(c) Thin rubber slotting wheels, etc. 

Usually, the grinding wheel size is 250 mm in diameter and 25 mm in a face. 

The grinding wheel size can be increased according to the capacity of the machine.

Wheel Guard

A wheel guard is used for safety purposes which covers the entire grinding wheel.


A lot of heat is generated during the grinding operation, coolant is used to control this heat.

Hand traversing wheel

This wheel facilitates the movement of the table in the longitudinal direction, allowing it to be shifted either to the left or right.

Vertical Feed Hand Wheel

This vertical feed hand wheel is utilized to raise or lower the wheel head, enabling the adjustment of the grinding wheel for the desired depth of cuts.

Cross Side Hand Wheel

This wheel is employed to adjust the table in relation to the grinding wheel, facilitating precise grinding operations.

Types of Surface Grinding Machine

There are four types of surface grinding machines are used:

  •  Horizontal Spindle Reciprocating Table
  •  Horizontal Spindle Rotary Table
  • Vertical Spindle Reciprocating Table
  •  Vertical Spindle Rotary Table

Horizontal Spindle Reciprocating Table

It features a rectangular work table that executes horizontal reciprocating movements. In these surface grinding machines, the outer surface of the grinding wheel is utilized to grind the workpiece, creating flat surfaces. Horizontal spindle reciprocating table surface grinding machines are extensively employed in the industry compared to other types of surface grinding machines.

Horizontal Spindle Rotary Table

These surface grinding machines are designed for grinding round or thin workpieces and can also be adjusted to tilt the work table for grinding annular workpieces or specific jobs.

Vertical Spindle Reciprocating Table

In this type of surface grinding machine, the width of the worktable is smaller than the diameter of the grinding wheel. It is typically used for producing flat surfaces on simple workpieces or jobs.

Vertical Spindle Rotary Table

In these surface grinding machines, the workpiece continuously rotates on the rotating worktable, resulting in high production efficiency.

Methods of surface grinding

  1. Firstly place the grinding wheel as per requirement.
  2. Place the workpiece on the magnetic chuck.
  3. Adjust the work table to bring about 3 mm of contact with the inner end of the workpiece and feed the wheel onto the workpiece.
  4. After then feed the table longitudinally and at the same time feed the table inward to adjust the workpiece and grinding wheel.
  5. And then perform grinding operation.
  6. When the job is done, remove the job and clean the machine.

So, in this discussion, we covered the various aspects of surface grinding machines, including their parts and functions, types, and grinding methods.

1 thought on “Surface Grinding Machine Parts and Function,Types,Uses”

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