Cylindrical Grinding Machine: Working, Parts, Types, Uses

In this article, I will provide comprehensive insights into a cylindrical grinding machine, covering aspects such as its parts, types, uses, and more.

The cylindrical grinding machine is essentially a type of grinder, similar to a surface grinding machine, tool and cutter grinding machine, centerless grinding machine, and so on.

What is Cylindrical Grinding Machine?

A cylindrical grinding machine is a type of grinder that is used to shape the outside of an object with a cylindrical shape. This machine utilizes an abrasive wheel to remove material from the workpiece, achieving the desired shape and surface finish. It is commonly employed for precision machining and is suitable for a variety of applications where cylindrical components need to meet specific tolerances and specifications. The cylindrical grinding machine is a versatile tool in manufacturing processes, allowing for the production of cylindrical parts with high accuracy and precision.

This is a type of precision machinery designed to grind both the outer and inner parts of workpieces.

Working Principle of Cylindrical Grinding Machine

The working principle of a cylindrical grinding machine involves rotating the workpiece around a central axis while an abrasive wheel removes material from the outer and inner surfaces. This process achieves the desired shape and surface finish by precision grinding. The grinding wheel makes contact with the workpiece, creating a rotational movement, and the feed allows the wheel to advance along the workpiece. The combination of these movements results in the removal of material, shaping the workpiece to meet specific requirements. Cylindrical grinding machines are crucial for achieving high-precision and accurate cylindrical shapes in various manufacturing applications.

Read also: Types of Cutting Tool Materials and Their Properties

In this machine, the workpiece rotates between two centers along its axis. The grinding wheel, spinning at high speed, grinds both centers on the workpiece’s axis, resulting in the creation of a smooth surface.

Parts of Cylindrical Grinding Machine

There are following parts are used:

  • Base
  • Wheel Head
  • Cross Feed Hand Wheel
  • Working Table
  • Table Traverse Hand Wheel
  • Headstock
  • Chuck
  • Belt Pulley
  • Foot-stock
Show in the figure parts of cylindrical grinding machine which are described below in detail.
Cylindrical Grinding Machine
Parts of Cylindrical Grinding Machine

Base

The term “base” can have different meanings depending on the context. In the context of machinery or equipment, the base typically refers to the foundation or lower supporting structure on which the machine rests. It provides stability and support for the entire system.

If you have a specific context or industry in mind, please provide additional details for a more accurate and tailored explanation.

This constitutes the primary component of the machine. It carries substantial weight and imparts strength and support to the entire machinery.

Wheel Head

The wheel head is positioned on the cross slide and has vertical movement capability. This allows adjustment of the depth of cut either manually using the cross-feed handwheel or through a power source.

Cross Feed Hand Wheel

The cross-feed handwheel is employed to adjust the position of the wheel head, determining the depth of cut on the workpiece.

Working Table

The term “working table” typically refers to a flat surface on a machine or workstation where various tasks or processes are performed. In the context of a cylindrical grinding machine, the working table is where the workpiece is securely placed and supported during the grinding operation.

If you have a specific aspect or detail in mind regarding the working table, please provide more information for a more tailored response.

Read also: Manufacturing Process of Steel: 6 Methods of Making Steel

The working table is installed on guideways, enabling it to reciprocate longitudinally in both directions. It can be displaced using either the handwheel for table traverse or through a power source. Trip dogs are strategically positioned on the working table to regulate the reciprocating motion.

Table Traverse Hand Wheel

The table traverse handwheel is employed to longitudinally move the table back and forth.

Headstock

The headstock is a key component of a machine or tool, typically found at the extreme end. In the context of a cylindrical grinding machine, the headstock is a vital part that holds and rotates the workpiece. It plays a crucial role in providing stability and support during the grinding process.

If you have a specific context or additional details in mind about the headstock, feel free to provide more information for a more tailored explanation.

The headstock is positioned on the left side of the table and contains the motor responsible for driving the workpiece. It supports the workpiece using a center, and the machining operation is facilitated by a carrier or dog.

Chuck

A chuck, affixed to the headstock, serves as a workholding device. It is employed during grinding operations to secure and hold the workpiece or job in place.

Belt Pulley

A belt pulley is a mechanical component that consists of a wheel with a grooved rim designed to hold and guide a belt. It is commonly used in machinery to transmit power between shafts by means of a belt. The belt pulley system allows for the transfer of rotational motion from one component to another, often enabling speed variations and power transmission.

A belt pulley is utilized to transfer rotation from one rotating pulley to another.

Foot-stock 

It seems like there might be a slight error in the term you provided. The correct term is likely “tailstock” instead of “foot-stock.”

A tailstock is a component found in the headstock-end of a machine, opposite the headstock. In metalworking and machining processes, particularly in lathes, it provides support to the other end of the workpiece. It often contains a quill that can be adjusted and locked in place to secure the workpiece and align it with the axis of the lathe or machine tool. The tailstock is crucial for achieving stability and precision during various machining operations. If you were referring to a different term or have additional details, please provide more information.

Types of Cylindrical Grinding Machine

There are the following types of machines available:

  • External Cylindrical Grinder
  • Internal Cylindrical Grinder
  • Universal Cylindrical Grinder
  • Centerless Cylindrical Grinder

External Cylindrical Grinder

An external cylindrical grinder is a specific type of grinding machine designed for the precision machining of the outer surfaces of cylindrical workpieces. In this grinder, an abrasive wheel rotates around the external surface of the workpiece, removing material and creating the desired shape and finish. External cylindrical grinding is commonly used to achieve tight tolerances and smooth surfaces on cylindrical components in various industries, including manufacturing and engineering. This type of grinder is instrumental in producing cylindrical parts with accuracy and consistency.

Internal Cylindrical Grinder 

An internal cylindrical grinder is a specialized type of grinding machine designed for precision machining of the inner surfaces of cylindrical workpieces. In this grinder, an abrasive wheel rotates inside the workpiece, removing material and shaping the internal diameter. The machine is configured to achieve precise dimensions, tight tolerances, and a smooth finish on the inner cylindrical surfaces of components. Internal cylindrical grinding is commonly used in industries such as manufacturing and engineering for the production of precision parts with accurate internal features.

Universal Cylindrical Grinder

A universal cylindrical grinder is a versatile type of grinding machine that is designed to handle a variety of cylindrical grinding tasks. Unlike specialized grinders for external or internal grinding, a universal cylindrical grinder is capable of both external and internal grinding operations on cylindrical workpieces. This type of grinder typically features a swiveling wheel head, which allows for the grinding of external surfaces as well as the internal surfaces of workpieces.

The versatility of the universal cylindrical grinder makes it suitable for a wide range of applications where different types of cylindrical grinding are required. It provides flexibility in machining various parts with different shapes and sizes while maintaining precision and accuracy. This grinder is commonly used in manufacturing settings for tasks that involve the production of cylindrical components with diverse specifications.

Centerless Cylindrical Grinder

A centerless cylindrical grinder is a type of grinding machine that does not require the use of centers to support the workpiece. Instead of using centers or chucks, the workpiece is supported on a workrest blade situated between two rotating grinding wheels— the regulating wheel and the grinding wheel. The grinding wheel removes material from the workpiece, and the regulating wheel controls the rotational speed and feed rate of the workpiece.

This design allows for high production rates and is particularly effective for grinding long, thin workpieces. Centerless grinding is often used for tasks where achieving precise concentricity and dimensional accuracy is crucial, such as in the production of cylindrical components for various industries, including automotive and aerospace. The absence of centers simplifies the setup and provides efficiency in handling large volumes of workpieces.

Methods of grinding cylindrical surfaces in a cylindrical grinding machine

There are following methods include:

  1. Hold the job well centered.
  2. Make a trial cut and use an outside micrometer to correct the error.
  3. Dressing the wheel for a fine finish.  
  4. Finish the job.
  5. After the work is finished, remove the workpiece and turn off the machine.

In this article, we’ve explored components of a cylindrical grinding machine, their variations, operational principles, and techniques for grinding cylindrical surfaces.

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FAQs About Cylindrical Grinding Machines

  1. What are the three types of cylindrical grinders?

    Cylindrical grinders can be categorized into four types:

    • External
    • Internal
    • Universal
    • Centerless
  2. How does a cylindrical grinder operate?

    To operate a cylindrical grinder, start by securing the workpiece at the center and using an outside micrometer for error correction. Dress the grinding wheel for precise surface finish, then initiate the grinding process. The workpiece rotates in one direction between the centers, while the grinding wheel rotates in the opposite direction. Depth of cut is controlled through the cross-feed hand wheel, allowing the grinding wheel to move vertically or horizontally. The table traverse hand wheel is used to move the table back and forth for grinding in the desired area. Once the operation is complete, remove the finished workpiece.

  3. What are the uses of a cylindrical grinding machine?

    A cylindrical grinding machine is utilized for accurate grinding of both outer and inner parts of a workpiece or job.

  4. What is CNC cylindrical grinding?

    CNC cylindrical grinding involves the use of a computer numerical control system. It is employed in high-production scenarios, such as in manufacturing and the automotive industry.

  5. What is the speed range of cylindrical grinding operation?

    The speed range of cylindrical grinding machines during operation varies from 5000 to 12000 surface feet per minute (sfpm) or surface feet per minute (sfm).

  6. What is the primary difference between surface grinding and cylindrical grinding?

    The main distinction between these machines lies in their applications. Surface grinding is used for flat surfaces, while cylindrical grinding is employed for jobs with round shapes.

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